In recognition of the centenary of the North-West Rebellion in May 1985, the Native Studies Department at the University of Saskatchewan hosted a conference on the theme "1885 and After." The conference drew a wide audience, including Native and non-Native scholars who met to reassess the processes leading to the conflict in 1885 and the impact of the Rebellion on Native society and on the North-West.
The eighteen papers included in this volume have been arranged in two sections. The first deals with the events leading up to and including the outbreak of hostilities, while the second focusses on the transition of Native society following 1885.
The history of the colonization of the Americas by Europeans is often portrayed as a mutually beneficial process, in which ”civilization” was brought to the Natives, who in return shared their land and cultures. A more critical history might present it as a genocide in which Indigenous peoples were helpless victims, overwhelmed by European military power. In reality, neither of these views is correct. This book is more than a history of European colonization of the Americas. In this slim volume, Gord Hill chronicles the resistance by Indigenous peoples, which limited and shaped the forms and extent of colonialism. This history encompasses North and South America, the development of nation-states and the resurgence of Indigenous resistance in the post-WW2 era.
This mini book is not meant to be accusatory, but is designed to put the basic facts/ truths down in simple words and design, providing an Aboriginal primer.
A is for assimilation, although blunt in its approach, is aimed at teens and anyone who isn’t familiar with the basic history of the nation’s First People.
“I am going to tell you how we are treated. I am always hungry.” — Edward B., a student at Onion Lake School (1923)
“[I]f I were appointed by the Dominion Government for the express purpose of spreading tuberculosis, there is nothing finer in existence than the average Indian residential school.” — N. Walker, Indian Affairs Superintendent (1948)
For over 100 years, thousands of Aboriginal children passed through the Canadian residential school system. Begun in the 1870s, it was intended, in the words of government officials, to bring these children into the “circle of civilization,” the results, however, were far different. More often, the schools provided an inferior education in an atmosphere of neglect, disease, and often abuse.
Using previously unreleased government documents, historian John S. Milloy provides a full picture of the history and reality of the residential school system. He begins by tracing the ideological roots of the system, and follows the paper trail of internal memoranda, reports from field inspectors, and letters of complaint. In the early decades, the system grew without planning or restraint. Despite numerous critical commissions and reports, it persisted into the 1970s, when it transformed itself into a social welfare system without improving conditions for its thousands of wards. A National Crime shows that the residential system was chronically underfunded and often mismanaged, and documents in detail and how this affected the health, education, and well-being of entire generations of Aboriginal children.
This superbly researched, groundbreaking historical atlas presents a history of the civilization and territory of the Stó:l?, a First Nations people. Through words, archival photographs, and 86 full-color maps, the book details the mythic beginnings of the Stó:l? people and how white settlement turned their homeland into the bustling metropolis of Vancouver. An important document packed with fascinating information, the atlas also makes a significant contribution to cross-cultural understanding.
A seminal collection of Haida myths and legends; now in a gorgeous new package.
The linguist and ethnographer John Swanton took dictation from the last great Haida-speaking storytellers, poets and historians from the fall of 1900 through the summer of 1901. Together they created a great treasury of Haida oral literature in written form.
Having worked for many years with these century-old manuscripts, linguist and poet Robert Bringhurst brings both rigorous scholarship and a literary voice to the English translation of John Swanton's careful work. He sets the stories in a rich context that reaches out to dozens of native oral literatures and to myth-telling traditions around the globe.
Attractively redesigned, this collection of First Nations oral literature is an important cultural record for future generations of Haida, scholars and other interested readers. It won the Edward Sapir Prize, awarded by the Society for Linguistic Anthropology, and it was chosen as the Literary Editor's Book of the Year by the Times of London.
Bringhurst brings these works to life in the English language and sets them in a context just as rich as the stories themselves one that reaches out to dozens of Native American oral literatures, and to mythtelling traditions around the world.
The area between the Great Lakes and Lake Winnipeg, bounded on the north by the Hudson Bay lowlands, is sometimes known as the “Petit Nord.” Providing a link between the cities of eastern Canada and the western interior, the Petit Nord was a critical communication and transportation hub for the North American fur trade for over 200 years.
Although new diseases had first arrived in the New World in the 16th century, by the end of the 17th century shorter transoceanic travel time meant that a far greater number of diseases survived the journey from Europe and were still able to infect new communities. These acute, directly transmitted infectious diseases – including smallpox, influenza, and measles — would be responsible for a monumental loss of life and would forever transform North American Aboriginal communities.
Historical geographer Paul Hackett meticulously traces the diffusion of these diseases from Europe through central Canada to the West. Significant trading gatherings at Sault Ste. Marie, the trade carried throughout the Petit Nord by Hudson Bay Company ships, and the travel nexus at the Red River Settlement, all provided prime breeding ground for the introduction, incubation and transmission of acute disease. Hackett’s analysis of evidence in fur-trade journals and oral history, combined with his study of the diffusion behaviour and characteristics of specific diseases, yields a comprehensive picture of where, when, and how the staggering impact of these epidemics was felt.
In the last two decades there has been positive change in how the Canadian legal system defines Aboriginal and treaty rights. Yet even after the recognition of those rights in the Constitution Act of 1982, the legacy of British values and institutions as well as colonial doctrine still shape how the legal system identifies and interprets Aboriginal and treaty rights. What results is a systematic bias in the legal system that places Indigenous peoples at a distinct disadvantage.
The eight essays in Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada focus on redressing this bias. All of them apply contemporary knowledge of historical events as well as current legal and cultural theory in an attempt to level the playing field. The book highlights rich historical information that previous scholars may have overlooked. Of particular note are data relevant to better understanding the political and legal relations established by treaty and the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Other essays include discussion of such legal matters as the definition of Aboriginal rights and the privileging of written over oral testimony in litigation. The collection also includes an essay that, by means of ethnographic and historical data, raises concerns respecting how the law might be distorted even further if we are not careful in assuring that what is defined as Indigenous today is detached from its own traditions and divorced from contemporary issues.
In sum, Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada shows that changes in the way in which these rights are conceptualized and interpreted are urgently needed. This book then offers concrete proposals regarding substantive, processual, and conceptual matters that together provide the means to put change into practice.
This heavily illustrated, full colour historical narrative is a testament to the past 11,000 years of Aboriginal history in Alberta. It conveys the many challenges that Aboriginal people confronted, and celebrates their
enduring legacy. Berry and Brink explore grassroots political and cultural movements of the 1960s, contemporary self-government initiatives, and the ongoing reclamation of the Aboriginal voice.
This book reviews the actual situation in terms of Metis, Inuit, and First Nations peoples in Canada using the most recent data available. It explores the issues historically, assesses the costs to both Aboriginal peoples and the country, reviews alternative approaches to solving the problems, and includes innovative analysis of the causes of these problems.
Suggested Grades: 10-12
Thomas Isaac highlights the most important aspects of Canadian law as it impacts on Aboriginal peoples and their relationship with the wider Canadian society. While covering important issues such as Aboriginal and treaty rights, constitutional issues, land claims, self-government, provincial and federal roles in dealing with Aboriginal peoples, the rights of the Métis, and the Indian Act, this book pays particular attention to the Crown’s duty to consult. In discussing the Crown’s duty to consult the author canvasses when and to whom the duty applies. He also highlights the role of governments in reconciling Aboriginal interests with the needs of Canadian society as a whole. The Supreme Court of Canada is clear that the objective of achieving reconciliation lies primarily with governments.
This is a law book, but it is designed for use by anyone needing to understand Aboriginal legal issues and is presented in a neutral way. All major Canadian cases dealing with Aboriginal law are discussed and analyzed in this volume. The author looks at the broad picture of trends that are developing in the law and the background to such trends. This edition of Aboriginal Law does not contain case or legislative excerpts, all of which are readily available on the internet.
This volume explores Indigenous measures of economic development in First Nations Atlantic Canadian communities that are of relevance for First Nations peoples. Many of the challenges faced by these communities and their local, regional and national leaders in advancing economic development relate to experiences of diverse and complex issues — most of which clash with federal policies that increasingly call for centralization, standardization and uniformity. This volume illustrates the key challenges in establishing and maintaining socially responsible economic development that is beneficial for Aboriginal communities.
Winner of the 1995 Ontario Historical Society Joseph Brant Award for the best book on native studies
Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations contains seventeen essays on aspects of the history of the First Nations living within the present-day boundaries of Ontario. This volume reviews the experience of both the Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples in Southern Ontario, as well as the Algonquians in Northern Ontario. The first section describes the climate and landforms of Ontario thousands of years ago. It includes a comprehensive account of the archaeologists' contributions to our knowledge of the material culture of the First Nations before the arrival of the Europeans. The essays in the second and third sections look respectively at the Native peoples of Southern Ontario and Northern Ontario, from 1550 to 1945. The final section looks at more recent developments. The volume includes numerous illustrations and maps, as well as an extensive bibliography.
Oral traditions are a distinct way of knowing and the means by which knowledge is reproduced, preserved and transferred from generation to generation. The conference from which these essays were selected created an opportunity for people to come together and exchange information and experiences over three days. The scholarship may be grouped into three broad areas: oral traditions and knowledge of the environment, economy, education and/or health of communities; oral traditions and continuance of language and culture; and the effects of intellectual property rights, electronic media and public discourse on oral traditions.
Aboriginal rights do not belong to the broader category of universal human rights because they are grounded in the particular practices of aboriginal people. So argues Peter Kulchyski in this provocative book from the front lines of indigenous people’s struggles to defend their culture from the ongoing conquest of their traditional lands. Kulchyski shows that some differences are more different than others, and he draws a border between bush culture and mall culture, between indigenous people’s mode of production and the totalizing push of state-led capitalism.
Aboriginal Rights Are Not Human Rights provides much needed conceptual and historical analysis of aboriginal and treaty rights in Canada, and offers concrete suggestions to transform the current policy paradigm into one that supports and invigorates indigenous cultures in a contemporary context.